Guolin Qigong for HealthCare & Wellness 郭林氣功保健祛病養生益壽-慢性病 多發病 疑難病受益者 慢性病及多發病及疑難病的郭林氣功驗效實證38種（31+7）病名及人名錄 （根據已公開發表治療的不完全統計） 1 多種慢性病 北京劉甦-失眠 心臟病 動脈硬化 肝炎 骨節痛 李則涵 李平-高血壓/高血脂/隱性糖尿病/冠心病 劉書華-高血壓/糖尿病/左側腦室腦梗塞/心臟病及肺腺癌/中心型肺癌 王淑香-肥大性脊柱炎/骨質增生/慢性濕疹/高血壓/冠心病/神經官能症/腦動脈硬化/雙眼底動脈硬化 李力-血栓性閉塞性脈管炎/末梢神經炎/氣管炎/慢性鼻炎/慢性附件炎/貧血/便秘/風濕性關節炎/神經官能症/甲狀腺腫塊 李思朝-肺鱗癌/肝硬化/類風濕關節炎/結締組織病/胃潰瘍 郭建新-萎縮性胃炎/神經衰弱/關節炎/高血壓/心臟病 劉培林-高血壓 心絞痛 腰腿痛 氣管炎 逢國慶-冠狀動脈硬化/肺氣腫/哮喘/關節炎 梁秀蘭-高血壓/肺炎/慢性胃炎/冠心病 太原殷淑義-腎盂腎炎/咽炎/鼻炎/中耳炎/牙周炎/便秘/痔瘡/感冒/失眠 江門王方梅-精神分裂症/哮喘/心肌勞損/心率不齊/脂肪肝/腰椎和頸椎骨質增生 陳喜芝-再生障礙性貧血/乙肝/膽囊炎/風濕性關節炎/慢性咽炎/子宮肌瘤/腦血管硬化 董世安-氣管炎/膽囊炎/腎炎/關節炎 山西退休老人張菊秀多病纏身：高血壓 早搏 胃炎 失眠 浮腫，堅持練功祛了一身病痛。 廣東省興寧溫玉珍 風濕性心髒病 竇性早搏 心律不齊間歇跳 二尖瓣狹窄 咳嗽吐血 關節炎 頸椎增生 雙腿浮腫 腎結石 2 高血壓 北京賀虹 楊澤民 劉培林 王文英 3 心臟病 北京張懷濤 陶秉福 王淑香 張明武-冠心病 心絞痛 高血壓 夜尿頻數 劉桂蘭-心血管病+心肌梗死） 幸德錄-心律失常 心房纖顫） 周寧-心律不齊 右束支不完全新傳導阻滯 頻發性室性期前收縮三聯律 高血壓 康復後赴挪威讀博士 吳玲善-心絞痛 心律失常 心電圖呈現持續性三聯律二聯律 吳兆祥 李景欒 李恩朝 柯岩 4 冠心病 北京冶金部李平-完全性右束支傳導阻滯 中科院倪弄畔 徐州秦子敬 廣東興寧何躍元-高血壓 高血脂 撫順佟迪明-房顫 5 心肌梗死 北京劉桂蘭 香港王銘 6 糖尿病 中科院倪弄畔 劉桂蘭 楊智英 陳書田 首鋼張應訊 淄博李以平 國防科委孫宗洪 北京黃平 丁文魁 北戴河馬長宏 浙江女孩徐铀 勝利油田供應處王振厚 7 動脈粥樣硬化 北京劉甦 山東李道顯 8 腦動脈硬化 北京王淑香 女 83歲 腦動脈硬化、雙眼底動脈硬化 桂林鄒淑君的丈夫-腦萎縮退化帕金森症 9 高脂血病 北京冶金部李平 10 閉塞性脈管炎 北京農業展覽館李力 11 血管瘤 田桂玲 12 血液病-真性紅細胞增多症 北京開關廠徐嫣-真性紅細胞增多症 菏澤卞秀田.眼球和全身皮膚呈紅色，四肢無力，西醫治療後膽固醇高，肝胃痛，關節痛，視力和記憶力減退 13 腦鳴 楊彩球(1965年發病,還有高血壓，關節炎，鼻炎，浮腫病。72年學功，痊癒後成為輔導員） 14 脈管炎 北京李力 15 青光眼 趙明-原發性單純性青光眼 李文 李淑一 16 偏癱（半身不遂，腦血管意外後遺症） 陳書田-還有心臟病/糖尿病 譚仁元 陳玉珍 李清謙 北京劉寶亭康復-多年頑疾失眠 痔瘡 肩周炎也好了。 洛陽市郭永年-右肢體癱瘓 口歪眼斜 冠心病早搏 17 腸胃炎 徐州秦子敬 18 放射性肺炎 陳秀坤 溫孝 19 過敏性鼻炎 廣州喻女士，台灣蔡明花 20 肝硬化 北京徐金生/趙成/劉煥新/電報局韓天仙 秦海-肝硬化/胸水/腹水 山東單長禮 21 神經衰弱 田莉 蔣貴 山東李道顯 肺病 郭林（林妹殊） 22 膽結石 上海黃麗殊 23 肝炎 北京李永 王健-乙肝 單長禮-遷延性肝炎 倪弄畔 首都醫院葉德蓉 社科院周廣慶 撫順曹文冰-急性無黃疸性肝炎 24 腎炎 美國加州黃松笑 25 慢性腎功能不全 北京劉煥新 26 尿毒症 張樹雲 27 便秘 趙振國 28 脫肛痔瘘 山東李道顯 29 腰痛 徐國瑞 30 常年低燒 杜文秀 廣州姚月顏 31 不孕症-子宮內膜異位 台灣久久統一郭林氣功SARS寶寶 ---------- 疑難雜症驗效實例 1 硬皮病 北京劉志芳練功1年，連老毛病胃炎也好了，恢復健康和工作。 皮淑英 新疆朱金娣 2 紅斑狼瘡 楊新菊 張淑雲 李萍 田鳳梅 賈玉芝 黃燕貞和李萍。 山東萊西劉秉敏 江西資溪縣席寧平 3 混合型結締組織病（硬皮病/皮肌炎/紅斑狼瘡3病混合-簡稱MCTD） 朱金娣，1983年底開始習練，1985年春節後恢復全勤工作。 美尼爾症，長期腹瀉，神經性頭痛都治愈。 4 類風濕病 廣州天河郭林氣功輔導員喻女士 北京張英，李恩朝 5 皮肌炎 新疆朱金娣 6 美尼氏綜合症 新疆朱金娣 7 全身性關節炎+全身性肌炎 河南新鄉劉君喻 四肢關節腫脹，全身肌肉酸疼，全身性皮炎，眼瞼肌炎
郭林氣功抗癌驗效46種癌瘤-郭林氣功受益者人名摘錄 GuoLin QiGong for AntiCancer & Wellness (括號內數字是世界衛生組織WHO公佈2008年死亡數） 1 肺癌（137萬例死亡）lung cancer 北京海軍高文彬 劉書華（肺腺癌/中心型肺癌,另有多種慢性病高血壓/糖尿病/左側腦室腦梗塞/心臟病） 郭成沛 龐鷹 劉倫德-開胸無法剝離腺癌，未切除腫瘤 馬煥光 王多加 汪錦華 空軍王富林/農科院田女士 吳天美-伴縱隔及淋巴轉移 田毓起 保定王非 安陽溫 呼和浩特索日娜 絨癌轉移肺 遼寧省孫鐸 撫順市杜尚明 瀋陽蔡玉清 王德林 王昌林 李林 黑龍江韩鳳國 齊齊哈爾患者刘凤春-肺癌转脑癌 長沙蔡智清/袁財森 王寬明-中央型低分化鱗癌 啟東俞培珍 南京岳榮富 四川張成仁 蘭州李中立 成都萬倪雯 長沙宴靜文 襄樊易元素 364醫院住院號4693患者楊某 包頭溫孝 吳伯簫 賀永裧 王瑛50岁，患病前为普外科护士长，肺癌骨转移、脑转移，被判定6个月生命，现已生存近9年。 2 胃癌（73.6萬例死亡） 北京閥門廠工人劉丙戌/顧平旦/周世彬/李慶存/宋振林/岳佳彥 萬元青 宋月畫-胃竇低分化腺癌擴散 李明 郭發 兩次肝臟轉移 陸松泉-高分化管狀腺癌+重度萎縮性胃炎 石家莊于淑藏 保定石國安 河南郭佩玉 丁玉行 遼寧省瀋陽王殿學 朝陽市付守財 撫順孟祥煥 吉林四平楊彬-胃癌轉肝臟 青島王海潮 李艷華 泰安張元絳 成武縣田孟修 萊陽王本元 浙江省吳某(副主任醫師） 桐廬縣吳持紀 上海方國強 李守榮 王乃慈 新疆蕭調明 石河子梅漢昌 梁建延 安慶市龔金華（胃癌轉移肝臟未切除） 蕪湖王金霞 平頂山王立信 廣州姚月顏 江蘇鄒榮坤 啟東年過七旬抗癌明星陸佩懿抗癌21年,確診為胃低分腺癌晚期並胃小彎淋巴轉移。 台灣袁時和（袁士峨） 3 肝癌（69.5萬例死亡）liver cancer 北京空軍指揮學院桂中直/劉煥新/張仲錄/黎義明/杜德本/董鳳梅/劉濟生/王強 邢台侯雙海 洛陽楊五慶 湖南陳麗澤 無錫龔麗雲(肝曲12X10結腸癌3期，腹部大面積感染） 上海高鳳磊 張壽康 響水縣祝自力 浙江省玉環縣理由 黑龍江孫成武 湖北大冶董振家 湖南楊建保 廣州袁小華 昆明吳麗桃 鄭州 陳健（巨塊型混合肝細胞肝癌） 開封高榮軒（地區供銷幹校）肝硬化肝癌 平頂山李新立 安徽胡俊龍 一位肝癌患者的自述：“八年抗战” 话肝癌2012年04月12日64岁了，2003年11月因检查出得左肝结节型细胞癌切除，至今已经将近八年了。 4 結腸直腸癌（60.8萬例死亡） 北京趙淑文/于大元/張光微/桑魁寅/吳桂芝/朱幼麟/王淑梅/姜寅生/張榮/薛茂琴/何佩琪 翟秀珍 李興洲 結腸癌轉移腹膜膀胱 董伯進（1980年直腸癌）曾瓊林（肝臟轉移18年） 顧寶蘭 馬緣生 石增軍 總裝備部鄭啟鑑 解放軍外語學院劉佔民 青島趙繼峰/裴瑞玲 肥城孫剛勝 瀋陽林叢訓 撫順鄭朝容 哈爾濱南華植 無錫龔麗雲 江西樟樹李純真 常州張志敖 譚菊美 謝瑞華 石家莊薛寶勤 秘勇 桂林白萍 廣州馮慧芬 鄭州丁長友 洛陽張玉蘭 平頂山宋寶泉 衛中锋-直腸轉肝臟 長沙趙國珍/胡楚勤 夏盾 湖北孝感村醫林 昆明羅錦 周緒龍 四川黃元清 王方元 廣東李健華 海南瓊山王方梅（直腸高分化線癌) 常州郭枢失眠、关节炎、胃溃疡等近10种慢性病。1990年5月做过胆切除，1991年12月又结肠癌 香港L 5 乳腺癌（45.8萬例死亡）breast cancer 北京具本藝乳癌40年， 李素芳-癌齡35年） 查良琦/孫云彩（實性癌） 陳淑娟 董春梅 陳桂新 齊麗元 謝秋雲 邵淑芬 志繼紅 白玉芳/張靜/萬柔柔/方秀梅/周小龍/耿慧文 /高秀英/楊秀玲 張秀蘭/楊瑞英 天津蕭淑娟 趙寶珍 陶熔 湖南麻友三 西安 黃懷章 石河子聶宗蘭 馮流姣 四川柯麗君 峨嵋翁方玉 成都萬倪雯 北戴河汪默白 太原唐榮芝-肌膜及骨轉移 關淑惠 河南鄭偉 鄭州劉文樹（省教育學院副院長）-乳腺導管癌，多種慢性病，練功後吃好睡好健身好氣色好，記憶力恢復，口吃基本消除，右眼角大塊黑色老年斑逐步分散，縮小。褪色。滿頭銀髮變花白，出現絲絲縷縷的黑頭髮。在紫荊公園教百餘人學功。 開封彭幼娟 洛陽翟鳳蘭-乳腺硬癌轉移腋下淋巴 商丘某女-轉移甲狀腺 福州葉梅 乳腺子宮雙重癌 撫順周傑 解謙 佟迪明-乳肺雙重癌 哈爾濱張艷坤-乳腺癌轉移肝和骨 齊齊哈爾任淑芝-乳腺癌和子宫瘤 刘慧萍 溫州黃熔秋 廣州荔灣沈善瓊 江門李鐘瑜 深圳高群英-浸潤性導管癌，轉移心包/胸肺/淋巴/骨/腦 常州市莊詠琦 香港陳秀坤 黃譚智媛 台灣高雄陳阿綢 台北國中陳老師 馬來西亞鍾鳳英 森美蘭州葉蓮英 6 宮頸癌（27.5萬例死亡） 北京郭林（林妹殊） 石化院施柯（宮頸癌/腦動脈瘤顱內轉移） 南京張钰鈴 嫩江楊鳳芹 香港MsN 王明玉 雷蓮花 7 子宮內膜癌 北京彭蘭君 張梅英 仝玲(惡性葡萄胎+中晚期肝硬變） 彭蘭君（子宮內膜腺癌）張梅英（高分化宮體腺癌 腎炎 腎積水） 合肥何開芳（子宮絨毛膜癌轉移雙肺） 山西王巧雲 馬來西亞曾憲園(子宮癌+卵巢癌） 8 子宮肉瘤 清華大學雷國鑑 9 卵巢癌 北京胡玲（卵巢透明細胞癌+子宮腺癌）林永平 何友霞 李福超 李金秀（晚期卵巢癌+胃癌廣泛轉移肝胰臟腹腔） 王淑琴（輸卵管惡性腫瘤轉移，但未找到發病灶）孟慶珍 張元利 天津市李彥政 青島鄧琦（轉肝） 泰安市範維芹 黑龍江畢桂霞 大慶市石振芬（卵巢混合性生殖細胞癌） 山西蕭亞平 洛陽曾淑芳/女童孫露（1994年3歲時右側卵巢畸胎瘤+迴腸非何杰金淋巴瘤） 吉安熊道容 10. 膀胱癌 北京郭林（林妹殊）蔣仁依（乳頭狀移行細胞癌) 王施宏 天津市張鶴永 盧偉 石家莊魯新順 鄭州劉英才（1982年多發性膀胱癌）鄭州周永江 大連趙德章 江蘇建湖縣王施宏 湖南江德漢 安徽許仁保 江西九江毛杏珍 山西張平 四川巴中于順和 王群英（剝脫性原位癌） 香港L 11. 胰腺癌 趙春元和王羽 胰腺癌+壺腹癌 劉文乾（胰腺癌廣泛轉移/梗阻性黃疸） 太原唐榮芝 陶熔 北京李秀貞（胰頭癌+乳癌） 四川姚淵碧 高級工程師程正軍 胰頭癌 施永德 12. 腎癌 北京黃可成/劉忠正/姜培剛/陳志明/王英梅 長沙楚恆嵐 景德鎮李志民（1982年腎透明體細胞癌+肝肺共19瘤，今仍健在） 常州高琴芳 廣東源榮照 香港MsC（腎癌轉肺腸） 李助君 陸榴 甄明玉（雙重癌 乳癌） 桂林秦剛斌（患肾癌16年、肺癌12年) 黑龍江張富 浙江省建工醫院氣功病房住院號87335陳某 13 膽癌 北京高明貞 14. 白血病（血癌） blood cancer 北京張藎民 聞曉華 慢性粒細胞白血病 桂林唐影 急性粒細胞白血病 範尚武 郭新生 開封張湘雲（河南師範大學校醫院）教功辦班受歡迎，市體委重視成立氣功協會任常委 平頂山李秀蘭 浙江省陳女士 長沙施梓紹 石河子王成庸 桂林唐影（急性粒細胞M3型白血病） 天津郭慶剛（重型再障溶血性貧血綜合徵）楊美雲 15 何杰金氏病（惡性淋巴瘤）洛陽胡宏亮 16 非何杰金氏惡性淋巴瘤 雞西市谷艷玲 17 惡性淋巴癌 山東省新泰李安源 淄博李英偉 北京張偉傑 和何愛玲 (非何杰金淋巴瘤） 徐三反（腦非何杰金淋巴瘤） 無錫張泉興 楊發榮 （漿細胞惡性淋巴瘤） 嫩江王子芳 昆明易慶湘 蕪湖聊本良（胃惡性淋巴瘤） 湖南毛艷姣 四川內江周兆英 18 惡性纖維組織細胞瘤 北京康錦昌 19. 胸腺瘤 北京陳雅梅 20. 脾肉瘤 北京楊潔蘭 21 惡性脂肪肉瘤 北京航天部張幼琴（腹膜） 王世安 （多形性） 22 淋巴肉瘤 上海袁正平 賀永裧 23 惡性肉瘤轉肺 台灣和信醫院確診患者亞鳳腎癌 24 食道癌 北京生命綠洲藝術團伊波 瀋陽巴貴文 石家莊謝運彩 山東省腫瘤防治院住院號29746姚某（假鱗癌6cm)/朱某（癌瘤長10cm) 楊崇學 泗水縣姚福倫 太原宛慶餘 呂梁張長暢 四川內江蕭進賢 杭州王德林（上段食道癌侵及氣管） 鄭州徐發根(1998年5月被确诊为食道鳞癌晚期，并腹腔、左肾、胰腺等处淋巴结转移。无法手术，仅做放化疗) 平頂山毛志傑 王瑞生 石河子梁威（高分化鱗狀細胞癌） 25 鼻咽癌 台灣龍邦某董事 深圳劉陽光 湖南程伊成 陳厚強 河南王沛福 浙江黃靜 雲南徐凡瑗 尹亞星 昆明周兵（鼻翼基底細胞癌） 香港MrL 菏澤李道顯（憤門癌/高血壓/冠心病/動脈粥樣硬化/肩周炎/關節炎/痔瘡/脫肛/神經衰弱/腳跟骨刺） 山東省 湯松永 臨沂李金榮 泰安商和慧 上海幹以明 石家莊陳增輝 謝運彩 山西宛慶餘 呂梁市張長暢 北京朱邦本(晚期轉顱骶骨）李敬堂 李世銘 火箭專家胡仲雍（轉移淋巴和腹部，骨瘤） 張勤 天津李茂杉（實體型鼻腺癌侵犯蝶竇） 李玉琴 四川譚曉南 蔡紹普 重慶黃昌明 北京化工學院印尼歸僑郭說養 26 口腔癌 北京高繼貞（高分化鱗癌） 安徽宣城姚先鋒（硬腭中心性鱗癌） 何國英（牙齦癌+舌癌+鎖骨淋巴瘤） 27 扁桃體癌 新疆石河子張翠花 28 喉癌 北京海淀趙成山 內江盧俊（晚期鱗狀細胞癌） 江西九江項光亞 馬來西亞陳振坤 撫順周傑的母親 29 脣癌 北京楊增和 （頦下淋巴轉移21年 30 上頜竇鱗癌 王玉林 31 上頜竇肉瘤 高淨 32 （頸部）頜下腺癌 江蘇通州宋漢茂（切除後又結腸腺癌肺轉移） 33 甲狀腺癌 北京李密君（雙肺/卵巢/淋巴轉移） 趙聰敏 袁作智 張紹俊 張文蘭（未分化癌，氣管/食道/縱隔淋巴轉移，帶癌生存14年） 孫江（濾泡型乳頭狀腺癌） 湖南邱瑾（未分化型癌+喬本氏病） 山東省腫瘤防治院患者石某（手術後復發） 昆明張美荷 浙江省台州楊志清 新疆王清華 34 眼癌 視網膜母細胞瘤 北京天壇分園 李玉玲 35 黑色素瘤 內蒙呼盟王禹洲（左眼脈絡膜混合細胞型黑色素瘤，繼發視網膜脫離） 俞加林（黑色素瘤/上皮樣肉瘤） 36 前列腺癌 王藝林 廖上光 北京丰台分園 李密君（轉移雙肺卵巢淋巴，帶瘤生存 河北大學陳少林 香港MrS 馬來西亞曾憲園(子宮癌+卵巢癌）之丈夫 37睾丸癌 保定張長會(精原細胞癌） 濟南劉曉軍 睾丸精原細胞瘤胚胎癌） 38 精索癌 湖北李文坤 39 皮膚癌 桂林鄒淑君 40 大汗腺癌 石河子唐麗榮，同時也治好了萎縮性鼻炎，嗅覺變得特靈敏。 41 腦癌 桂林唐伶俐 （腦垂體瘤） 北京施柯（顱內腦動脈瘤）羅明和林開煌（腦膠質瘤）樂君（小腦膜瘤）韓麗萍 焦桂雲 成都劉體懷 平頂山程國慶 洛陽市郭素蓮 菏澤吳慶恩 阿克蘇殷紅梅 香港MrL 韓國某華僑（在台灣學功） 42 骨癌 北京閻敖 左髖關節上臼惡性纖維組織細胞瘤 南充徐波（骨轉兩肺） 43 骨髓瘤 瀋陽市趙財林 44 （腹腔腰膜）惡性血管內皮細胞瘤 北京鮑鳳雲 45 頭頸癌 洛陽市郭素蓮 右側頂枕部鱗狀細胞癌 46 脾曲癌 浙江省臨海金良志 （直腸-脾曲）雙重癌
GuoLin QiGong@HKU/QMH: Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension.
J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Sep;19(9):697-704. Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension. Cheung BM1, Lo JL, Fong DY, Chan MY, Wong SH, Wong VC, Lam KS, Lau CP, Karlberg JP. Author information Abstract Exercise and relaxation decrease blood pressure. Qigong is a traditional Chinese exercise consisting of breathing and gentle movements. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to study the effect of Guolin qigong on blood pressure. In all, 88 patients with mild essential hypertension were recruited from the community and randomised to Goulin qigong or conventional exercise for 16 weeks. The main outcome measurements were blood pressure, health status (SF-36 scores), Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory scores. In the qigong group, blood pressure decreased significantly from 146.3+/-7.8/93.0+/-4.1 mmHg at baseline to 135.5+/-10.0/87.1+/-7.7 mmHg at week 16. In the exercise group, blood pressure also decreased significantly from 140.9+/-10.9/93.1+/-3.5 mmHg to 129.7+/-11.1/86.0+/-7.0 mmHg. Heart rate, weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, renin and 24 h urinary albumin excretion significantly decreased in both groups after 16 weeks. General health, bodily pain, social functioning and depression also improved in both groups. No significant differences between qigong and conventional exercise were found. In conclusion, Guolin qigong and conventional exercise have similar effects on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. While no additional benefits were identified, it is nevertheless an alternative to conventional exercise in the nondrug treatment of hypertension. PMID: 15905884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ----------- Original Article Journal of Human Hypertension (2005) 19, 697–704. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001884; published online 19 May 2005 Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension B M Y Cheung1,2, J L F Lo3, D Y T Fong4, M Y Chan5, S H T Wong5, V C W Wong6, K S L Lam1,2, C P Lau1,2 and J P E Karlberg7 1Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 2Research Centre of Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 3Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 4Department of Nursing Studies, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 5Department of Physiotherapy, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 6Hong Kong Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, China 7Clinical Trials Centre, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Correspondence: Dr BMY Cheung, Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 1 February 2005; Revised 5 April 2005; Accepted 6 April 2005; Published online 19 May 2005. Top of page Abstract Exercise and relaxation decrease blood pressure. Qigong is a traditional Chinese exercise consisting of breathing and gentle movements. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to study the effect of Guolin qigong on blood pressure. In all, 88 patients with mild essential hypertension were recruited from the community and randomised to Goulin qigong or conventional exercise for 16 weeks. The main outcome measurements were blood pressure, health status (SF-36 scores), Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory scores. In the qigong group, blood pressure decreased significantly from 146.3plusminus7.8/93.0plusminus4.1 mmHg at baseline to 135.5plusminus10.0/87.1plusminus7.7 mmHg at week 16. In the exercise group, blood pressure also decreased significantly from 140.9plusminus10.9/93.1plusminus3.5 mmHg to 129.7plusminus11.1/86.0plusminus7.0 mmHg. Heart rate, weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, renin and 24 h urinary albumin excretion significantly decreased in both groups after 16 weeks. General health, bodily pain, social functioning and depression also improved in both groups. No significant differences between qigong and conventional exercise were found. In conclusion, Guolin qigong and conventional exercise have similar effects on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. While no additional benefits were identified, it is nevertheless an alternative to conventional exercise in the nondrug treatment of hypertension. Keywords: exercise, qigong, clinical trials Top of page Introduction The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown in most patients. Many hypertensive patients are anxious and anxiety in itself may be a factor in raising the blood pressure in some individuals, most notably the white-coat hypertensives. Relaxation techniques help to lower blood pressure.1 Exercise is also known to decrease blood pressure.2 Regular exercise is recommended in guidelines on the management of hypertension.3, 4 The exact mechanisms that cause the decrease in blood pressure are uncertain. Exercises that also result in relaxation may therefore be useful in decreasing blood pressure. Qigong (pronounced chee-gong) is a series of relaxation, breathing, gentle movement and walking exercises.5, 6 It has been practised in China for centuries. An estimated 60 million people in China practise it daily. It is also popular among overseas Chinese and is gaining popularity in the West. According to traditional Chinese medicine, qi is an energy that flows in the body. Qigong is a means of unblocking and increasing the healthy flow of qi. It is essentially a selftraining process, guided by a manual or a master. Many claims have been made that qigong, may enhance function of the central nervous, cardiovascular, renal, immune and reproductive systems.5, 6, 7 It is also thought to be helpful in patients with malignancies in improving their mood and even prolonging survival.8 Qigong reduces blood pressure in hypertensives as well as reduces 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC), an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent adrenal cortical hormone.9 Qigong acutely reduces plasma ACTH while increasing beta-endorphin.10 An echocardiographic study of 120 elderly patients in China showed that after one year of qigong, cardiac output increased and total peripheral resistance decreased, but only in the 'heart-energy-deficient' subgroup.6, 11 The conscious control of breathing is an important element of qigong. Control of breathing has been shown to be useful in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients.12, 13 It is not known if qigong lowers blood pressure by this mechanism, but qigong has been shown to improve the ventilatory efficiency for oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production.14 A follow-up study of 244 hypertensive patients for 18–22 years showed a lower incidence and mortality because of stroke among hypertensives taking antihypertensive medications and practising qigong compared to a nonrandomised control group.15 At the same time, the requirement for medications was also lower. In view of the popularity of qigong and the many claims of benefit, it is necessary to investigate its health effects in man using rigorous scientific methodology. We therefore conducted a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of one style of qigong, Guolin qigong, on blood pressure in patients with mild essential hypertension. Guolin qigong was introduced more than 50 years ago by Madam Guo, a long-term cancer survivor. Her form of qigong is characterised by a slow walking exercise accompanied by arm movements and twisting of the waist.16 Goulin qigong was chosen for the sake of uniformity and because it was nonreligious, nonpolitical and widely practised in China as well as other parts of the world. Hypertension was chosen as the subject of investigation as blood pressure can be measured objectively as an outcome variable and it is logical to expect a reduction of blood pressure arising from the exercise and relaxation provided by qigong. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that qigong reduces blood pressure more than a conventional exercise programme taught by the physiotherapist. Top of page Methods The study was a randomised controlled trial to compare qigong with conventional exercise. The study was designed, monitored and analysed in the Clinical Trials Centre of the University of Hong Kong. An independent data and safety monitoring committee was established for the study. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Queen Mary Hospital, where the study took place. All subjects gave written consent before participation in the study. Subjects were recruited from the community between April 2000 and June 2001. Advertisements for voluntary subjects were printed in local newspapers and posted on notice boards in the local community. Interested subjects were invited to come for a detailed explanation of the nature of the study and to give informed consent. There were three screening visits on consecutive weeks to establish the diagnosis of hypertension. Eligible subjects then underwent a screening medical examination. Each subject took one placebo tablet daily for 2 weeks. At the end of this single blind run-in period, the subjects were randomised to either Guolin qigong or exercise for 16 weeks if the inclusion and exclusion criteria were satisfied. Randomisation was performed by a statistician who had prepared a randomisation list before the study started. The inclusion criteria were (1) age between 18 and 75 years inclusive; (2) seated systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and 170 mmHg inclusive and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 and 105 mmHg inclusive on at least three separate occasions; and (3) asymptomatic. The exclusion criteria were (1) serious symptomatic cardiac disease including previous myocardial infarction, angina or heart failure; (2) previous transient ischaemic attacks or stroke; (3) secondary hypertension; (4) renal failure (creatinine >200 mumol/l); (5) necessity to continue antihypertensive medications; (6) concomitant illnesses that preclude participation; (7) pregnancy or women who might become pregnant but did not have adequate contraception; and (8) impaired left ventricular function on echocardiography. A medical history was taken and a physician performed a physical examination. The height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured. Body fat percentage was estimated from the measurement of bioelectrical impedance (Tanita TBF300, Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Blood pressure and heart rate were taken at every visit. A trained research nurse measured the blood pressure carefully with the subject in the seated position three times after resting for at least 15 min in a temperature-controlled room. A cuff of appropriate size was fitted to the right arm of the patient. The first inflation was to accustom the subject to the procedure, and the measurement was disregarded. Two subsequent measurements were carried out at 5-min intervals. The mean of these two measurements was used in the data analysis. No antihypertensive medications or medications that affect blood pressure were permitted during the study. If a subject required such medications for clinical reasons, or if the SBP or DBP exceeded 200 or 115 mmHg, respectively, the subject would be withdrawn. Ambulatory 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring (Spacelabs 90217-1B, Spacelabs Medical Ltd, Redmond, WA, USA) was performed just before the randomisation and just before the end of the study. An electrocardiogram was performed at randomisation and at the end of the study. In patients over 60 years old, echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular mass and left ventricular function using a standard technique.17 Biochemical measurements were made at the randomisation visit and at the end of the study period. These included renal function, full lipid profile, 0900 h cortisol, renin and aldosterone. Subjects were requested to collect urine for 24 h to measure urinary sodium, creatinine, protein and cortisol. Subjects were asked to complete three questionnaires, MOS Short Form 36-item (SF-36), Hong Kong Chinese version, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Chinese version (Beck Anxiety Inventory. Copyright © 1987, 1990 by Aaron T Beck. Chinese copyright © 1999 by Aaron T Beck) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Second Edition, Chinese version (Beck Depression Inventory: Second Edition. Copyright © 1996 by Aaron T Beck. Chinese copyright © 1999 by Aaron T Beck) at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 16. The MOS Short Form 36-item (SF-36), Hong Kong Chinese version consists of eight scales: physical function (PF), social function (SF), role physical (RP), role emotion (RE), vitality (VT), mental health (MH), general health (GH), and bodily pain (BP).18, 19 The BAI and BDI questionnaires contain 21 questions each. The answer to each question is scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The maximum possible total score is 63 (0–9 normal, 10–18 mild–moderate, 19–29 moderate–severe, 30–63 severe). Permission to use the above instruments was granted prior to the study. Qigong was taught by an instructor with expertise in Guolin qigong. Each subject underwent two 2-h training classes of qigong/exercise per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, the classes were held monthly until the end of the study. The total amount of time in class was 22 h. The first session consisted of explanations and pressure-relieving exercises. The second to fourth sessions consisted of walking exercises in addition to pressure-relieving exercises. In the fifth session, stretching exercises were introduced. The first seven sessions were training and learning sessions. The eighth session was a revision session. The subjects were asked to practise qigong for 60 min in the morning and 15 min in the evening every day for the duration of the study, comprising walking exercises for 40 min, eight sets of stretching exercises and three sets of pressure-relieving exercises in the morning and three sets of pressure-relieving exercises in the evening. Conventional exercise was taught by a physiotherapist. The schedule and size of the classes, as well as the intensity and amount of exercise matched those in the qigong group. The work load of the stretching, walking and pressure-relieving exercises in qigong was 2.0, 1.7 and 2.1 METs (metabolic equivalent of task, 1 MET is 1 kcal/kg body weight/hour), respectively, whereas that of stretching, walking and stepping in conventional exercise was 1.8, 2.0, 2.1 METs, respectively. This was verified by measuring oxygen consumption in four subjects in the qigong group and 13 subjects in the exercise group (7.0plusminus2.3 ml/min/kg during qigong and 6.1plusminus0.5 ml/min/kg during exercise, P=0.46). Briefly, the first session consisted of relaxation for 5–10 min, walking exercises for 40 min, stretching exercises for 10 min and resting for 5–10 min. In the second session, there was relaxation for 5–10 min, stretching for 10 min, stepping for 15 min, repeat stretching and stepping, then resting for 5–10 min. Thereafter, the session consisted of relaxation for 5–10 min, stretching for 10 min, walking for 40 min, stepping for 10 min and resting for 5–10 min. The stepping exercise was repeated for 15 min in the evening at home. The subjects were asked to perform 60 min of exercise in the morning and 15 min in the evening as above every day. All subjects, whether randomised to qigong or to conventional exercise, were asked to perform the routines daily according to the instructions. The compliance of the subjects was assessed in terms of the number of training classes attended, the number of hours of practise daily, and a performance evaluation (in terms of form, breathing, relaxation and overall mastery) by subjects and the corresponding instructor at 4 and 16 weeks. Performance was scored on a scale of 0 to100. Sample size Our estimate of the standard deviation for the change of DBP after qigong/control exercise was 5 mmHg. To detect a difference of 3 mmHg between the groups using a two-tailed t-test for independent samples required 45 patients per group with a power of 0.8 and a Type I error rate of 0.05.20 Assuming a 10% dropout, 100 patients were needed. Statistical analysis The efficacy analysis included all randomised subjects on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. Baseline characteristics in the two randomised groups were compared using chi2 or t-test as appropriate. A linear mixed effects model with a random intercept, qigong/exercise group, baseline value, and week as the covariates together with contrasts were used to examine the effect of qigong on the change of individual measurements after accounting for the baseline value.21 The linear mixed model has the advantage of utilising all available observations from the subjects. As an exploratory analysis, changes between baseline and final visit were analysed separately for each randomised group. Performance evaluations by the instructor and subjects were compared by sign test after accounting for tied observations. Performance scores of subjects in the two groups were compared by Wilcoxon's rank sum test with exact P-value approximated by Monte Carlo simulation of size 99 999. Results are expressed as means and standard deviations unless indicated otherwise. A 5% level of significance was used for all significance tests. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 8.2 was used for the data analysis in this study. Top of page Results A total of 584 individuals were screened, of whom 91 eligible subjects consented to participate in the study and were randomised to Guolin qigong (47) or conventional exercise (44). Subject disposition is shown in Figure 1. Three subjects randomised to conventional exercise withdrew for personal reasons before the start of training sessions. The remaining 88 subjects (47 and 41 in the qigong and exercise groups, respectively) were analysed. Their baseline characteristics are shown in Table 1. Figure 1. Figure 1 - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact email@example.com or the author Subject disposition. Full figure and legend (18K) Table 1 - Baseline characteristics. Table 1 - Baseline characteristics - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or the author Full table There was no significant difference between the number of training classes attended in the two groups (P=0.12). In the qigong and exercise groups, 24 (51%) and 16 (39%) subjects, respectively, attended all the eight sessions, while 43 (91%) and 34 (83%) subjects, respectively, attended at least six out of eight sessions. At week 4, the scores for performance of qigong were lower than those of conventional exercise, both in self-assessment (42.6plusminus20.2 vs 65.7plusminus19.7%, P<0.001) and in the assessment by the instructor (43.6plusminus20.9 vs 91.9plusminus16.1%, P<0.001), suggesting that qigong was harder to master than conventional exercise. Between week 4 and 16, the performance evaluations did not change significantly. There was only one adverse event: a woman in the qigong group experienced vestibular neuronitis that was not related to the practice of qigong. SBP was higher in the qigong group at baseline (P=0.004), which might be related to the higher mean age in this group (P=0.002). SBP and DBP significantly decreased in both groups by week 16 (P<0.001) (Table 2). The decreases in blood pressure were not significantly different in the two groups; the differences in SBP and DBP reduction between the two groups were 0.59 mmHg (95% CI: -3.73, 4.91; P=0.79) and 1.83 mmHg (95% CI: -0.75, 4.41; P=0.16), respectively. The changes in ambulatory blood pressure were also not significantly different between the two groups. The mean ambulatory DBP in the exercise group decreased by 1.7plusminus0.7 mmHg (P=0.01). Table 2 - Qigong effect on the change of blood pressures and heart rate over time, after accounting for the baseline values. Table 2 - Qigong effect on the change of blood pressures and heart rate over time, after accounting for the baseline values - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact email@example.com or the author Full table Heart rate was lower in both groups at week 16 compared to baseline (P<0.001) (Table 2). The decrease in heart rate was not significantly different in the two groups. There was no significant change from baseline in the mean ambulatory heart rate in either group. The baseline waist circumference as well as the waist hip ratio was significantly greater in the qigong group (Table 3). Overall, there was a significant decrease in weight (P=0.002), BMI (P=0.002) and waist circumference (P=0.008) at week 16 compared to baseline. There was no significant difference between the two groups in this respect. Table 3 - Changes in physical measurements. Table 3 - Changes in physical measurements - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or the author Full table Biochemical variables are shown in Table 4. There were significant differences in the baseline HDL cholesterol and 24 h urinary sodium excretion. Total cholesterol, renin and 24 h urinary protein excretion decreased significantly in both groups in the course of the study. Apart from a small increase in plasma sodium in the qigong group, there were no significant changes in the other biochemical variables measured. Table 4 - Changes in laboratory biochemical measurements. Table 4 - Changes in laboratory biochemical measurements - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact email@example.com or the author Full table Clinical ECG and echocardiographic variables did not change substantially after the practice of qigong or conventional exercise (Table 5). No significant differences were observed between the changes of these measurements in the two treatment groups. Table 5 - Changes in echocardiographic measurements. Table 5 - Changes in echocardiographic measurements - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or the author Full table There were no significant differences between qigong and exercise in the scores in the SF-36, BAI and BDI questionnaires. Overall, there were favourable changes in the general health (P=0.002), bodily pain (P=0.02) and social functioning (P=0.009) domains of SF-36 (Figure 2); the changes (meanplusminuss.e.) in GH, BP and SF scores were 3.8plusminus2.0, 3.7plusminus3.0 and 4.0plusminus3.4 in the qigong group and 5.4plusminus2.5, 9.7plusminus4.1 and 7.6plusminus2.6 in the exercise group, respectively. Similarly, there was a favourable change in the score (meanplusminuss.e.) for depression in BDI in both the qigong group (-1.9plusminus0.8, P=0.02) as well as the exercise group (-2.2plusminus1.0, P=0.02). Figure 2. Figure 2 - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact email@example.com or the author Changes in the domains of the SF-36 questionnaire between baseline and final visit. The qigong and conventional exercise groups are denoted by solid or broken lines, respectively. Error bars represent standard error of the mean. Full figure and legend (18K) Top of page Discussion Although qigong is practised widely, the amount of literature investigating the claims of its benefit is not substantial. Most studies were not published in English in international journals. In a review of 30 such studies related to qigong and hypertension, Mayer noted various areas of concern, including lack of random assignment, selection biases, placebo response issues, expectancy biases, blinded outcome assessment, adherence to treatment, reliability of blood pressure measurements, regression to the mean, publication biases and lack of consistency of measurement.22 This study was part of a programme of studies to test the efficacy of qigong in the most rigorous possible way in a randomised controlled trial. The subjects were recruited from the community and not from a hospital or secondary or tertiary referral centres. Most were untreated hypertensive patients. As antihypertensive medications were not prescribed during the study period, our results are not confounded by concurrent medications. Enormous care was taken to ensure that the two programmes were matched in terms of contact time and intensity. This study was performed in a single centre, with the same physician and research nurse throughout. There was an independent study monitor to ensure compliance with the protocol and to verify the data, ensuring its completeness and accuracy. The data were entered by an independent person and analysed by a statistician independently. We also studied variables that are less prone to subjectivity, that is, ambulatory blood pressure and echocardiography. The ambulatory DBP decreased in the exercise group but not in the qigong group, although there was no significant difference between the groups. No significant changes in left ventricular mass and ejection fraction were found. This was expected, as the mild changes in blood pressure were unlikely to lead to significant hypertrophy or regression, while the exertion involved was too moderate to cause hypertrophy as seen in athletes. The withdrawal of subjects before completion might have affected the power of the study. The frequency of withdrawal was not unusually high for a study that required lifestyle modification. In the landmark trials of low carbohydrate diets, the discontinuation and loss to follow-up rate was 40%.23, 24 In our study, there was no loss to follow-up and all subjects were accounted for. In any case, the observed difference in blood pressure lowering effect was less than 2 mmHg, which was small and of marginal clinical significance. Patient-centred outcome measures are also very important, as part of the benefit of many nonpharmacological measures may lie in the improvement in perceived quality of life and well-being. We found no difference between qigong and conventional exercises; both improved such variables to more or less the same degree. Our study does not support the hypothesis that qigong exercise offers an extra dimension of benefit in mild hypertension. We have shown that the psychosocial benefits are comparable. Qigong is more complex to master than conventional exercises done in accordance with the instructions of physiotherapists. It may therefore be less universally applicable. On the other hand, there may be cultural and spiritual benefits that our methodology cannot detect; nor have we addressed the possibility that qigong enhances the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs without having a pronounced effect on its own. Nevertheless, we have identified some positive benefits in both regimes besides lowering blood pressure. Both groups achieved a small degree of weight reduction, associated with a decrease in waist circumference, a reduction in urinary protein excretion and improvement in health status. The exercise intensity is low compared to brisk walking (2 vs 5 METs), making it suitable for the majority of the elderly. Indeed, it is lower than current exercise recommendations for the treatment of hypertension.25 In conclusion, our study showed that qigong and conventional exercise have similar effects on blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Qigong is not superior to conventional exercise, but can be used as an alternative to conventional exercise in those who prefer it as a form of nonpharmacological management of hypertension. Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or the author Top of page Notes Conflict of interest: none. The study was funded by a charitable donation for research from the Li Ka Shing Foundation. The Foundation is not involved in the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of the study. Top of page References Patel C, North WR. Randomised controlled trial of yoga and bio-feedback in management of hypertension. Lancet 1975; 2: 93–95. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Kokkinos PF et al. Effects of regular exercise on blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in African-American men with severe hypertension. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1462–1467. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Chobanian AV et al. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289: 2560–2572. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort | World Health Organization. International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension. J Hypertens 1999; 17: 151–183. Sancier K. Medical applications of qigong. Altern Ther Health Med 1996; 2: 40–46. | PubMed | ChemPort | Luskin FM et al. A review of mind–body therapies in the treatment of cardiovascular disease Part 1: implications for the elderly. Altern Ther Health Med 1998; 4: 46–61. | PubMed | ChemPort | Ryu H et al. Effect of qigong training on proportions of T lymphocyte subsets in human peripheral blood. Am J Chin Med 1995; 23: 27–36. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Chen K, Yeung R. Exploratory studies of Qigong therapy for cancer in China. Integr Cancer Ther 2002; 1: 345–370. | Article | PubMed | Kuang A et al. Effect of qigong therapy on plasma 18-OH-DOC level in hypertensives. J Traditional Chin Med 1987; 7: 169–170. | ChemPort | Ryu H et al. Acute effect of qigong training on stress hormone levels in man. Am J Chin Med 1996; 24: 193–198. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Wang C, Xu D, Qian Y, Kuang A. [The beneficial effect of qigong on the ventricular function and microcirculation of deficiency of heart-energy hypertensive patients]. Chin J Modern Developments in Traditional Med 1991; 11: 659–660 (in Chinese). | ChemPort | Schein MH et al. Treating hypertension with a device that slows and regularises breathing: a randomised, double-blind controlled study. J Hum Hypertens 2001; 15: 271–278. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Grossman E et al. Breathing-control lowers blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens 2001; 15: 263–269. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Lim YA, Boone T, Flarity JR, Thompson WR. Effects of qigong on cardiorespiratory changes: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med 1993; 21: 1–6. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Kuang A et al. Long-term observation on qigong in prevention of stroke—follow-up of 244 hypertensive patients for 18–22 years. J Traditional Chinese Med 1986; 6: 235–238. | ChemPort | Jones BM. Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong: a pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2001; 1: 8. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Yu CM et al. Increase in plasma adrenomedullin in patients with heart failure characterised by diastolic dysfunction. Heart 2001; 86: 155–160. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort | Lam CL, Gandek B, Ren XS, Chan MS. Tests of scaling assumptions and construct validity of the Chinese (HK) version of the SF-36 Health Survey. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 1139–1147. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort | Ware JE, Snow KK, Kosinski M, Gandek B. SF-36 Health Survey Manual and Interpretation Guide. The Health Institute: Boston, MA, 1993. Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 3rd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford, 1994. Diggle PJ, Liang KY, Zeger SL. Analysis of Longitudinal Data. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1994. Mayer M. Qigong and hypertension: a critique of research. J Altern Complement Med 1999; 5: 371–382. | PubMed | ChemPort | Samaha FF et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 2074–2081. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort | Foster GD et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 2082–2090. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort | Wallace JP. Exercise in hypertension. A clinical review. Sports Med 2003; 33: 585–598. | Article | PubMed | Top of page Acknowledgements The generous support from the Li Ka Shing Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. JCM Li was the Clinical Data Manager for the study. Ms SK Chan was the qigong instructor. Echocardiography was performed by Dr Q Wang. Numerous colleagues in the Clinical Trial Centre and Queen Mary Hospital have contributed to the study; their help is invaluable and is greatly appreciated. Permission to use the Chinese (HK) version of SF-36, and the Chinese version of the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory is gratefully acknowledged. 'Beck Depression Inventory', 'BDI', 'Beck Anxiety Inventory', and 'BAI' are registered trademarks of The Psychological Corporation, a Harcourt Assessment Company. All rights are reserved.
Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study by B M Jones,
Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study Brian M Jones Correspondence: Brian M Jones email@example.com Author Affiliations Division of Clinical Immunology, Pathology Department, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2001, 1:8 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-1-8 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/1/8 Received: 6 August 2001 Accepted: 18 October 2001 Published: 18 October 2001 © 2001 Jones; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL. Abstract Background Guolin Qigong is a combination of meditation, controlled breathing and physical movement designed to control the vital energy (qi) of the body and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental health. Practice of Qigong has been reported to alter immunological function, but there have been few studies of its effects on cytokines, the key regulators of immunity. Methods Numbers of peripheral blood cytokine-secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT in 19 healthy volunteers aged 27 – 55, before they were taught the practice of Qigong and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of daily practice. The effect of Qigong on blood cortisol was also examined. Results Numbers of IL4 and IL12-secreting cells remained stable. IL6 increased at 7 weeks and TNFα increased in unstimulated cultures at 3 and 7 weeks but decreased at these times in LPS and SAC-stimulated cultures. Of particular interest, IFNγ-secreting cells increased and IL10-secreting cells decreased in PHA-stimulated cultures, resulting in significant increases in the IFNγ:IL10 ratio. Cortisol, a known inhibitor of type 1 cytokine production, was reduced by practicing Qigong. Conclusion These preliminary studies in healthy subjects, although not necessarily representative of a randomized healthy population and not including a separate control group, have indicated that blood levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol may be lowered by short-term practice of Qigong and that there are concomitant changes in numbers of cytokine-secreting cells. Further studies of the effect of Qigong in patients with clinical diseases known to be associated with type 2 cytokine predominance are merited. Background Qigong is a combination of meditation, physical movements and controlled breathing. These exercises are designed to develop the skill of controlling qi, the vital energy of the body, and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental health. Adepts can reportedly use emitted qi to alter the performance of cells: "facilitating qi" increases cell growth while "inhibiting qi" suppresses growth of cultured tumour cells . Guolin Qigong was introduced more than 50 years ago by Madam Guo, a long-term cancer survivor who developed a network of self-help groups throughout China and beyond. This form of Qigong, which is characterized by a slow walking exercise accompanied by arm movements coordinated with slight twisting movements of the waist, is said to be particularly helpful for cancer patients. Among the organs apparently affected by qigong are brain, heart, kidney and the immune system, with benefits being reported in senility, hypertension, stroke, asthma, blood chemistry and cancer [2-6]. (See also http://www.goldenflower.org/reflib/articles/tc_as_treatment.shtml webcite). The reported benefits of Qigong could be mediated by effects on immunological function and various aspects of immune function could perhaps be influenced by qi energy. However, there have been only a few peer-reviewed publications describing alterations in immune system activity as a result of practicing Qigong. Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity responses were faster, stronger and more numerous in a Qigong trained group than a normal healthy group . Patients with aplastic anaemia treated with Qigong showed significant improvement in CD4+:CD8+ T-cell ratio , which also increased in newly recruited Qigong trainees after 5 months of practice . CD4:CD8 T-cell ratios and NK-cell activity tended to increase during a single 40-minute session of Qigong . Various non-reviewed studies have described increased lymphocyte, neutrophil and natural killer (NK) cell functions in subjects practicing Qigong [see Extension of Life: Documentation on the Effects of Chi Kong Qigong (Edited by Zhang RM) Renming Tin Yue Press, China 1995; and http://www.goldenflower.org/reflib/articles/tc_as_treatment.shtml] webcite Cytokines are highly labile effector glycoproteins which are crucially involved in afferent and efferent limbs of immune responses as pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory regulators. Type 1 cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 12, promote cell-mediated responses, while type 2 cytokines, including IL4, IL6 and IL10, are anti-inflammatory and favour humoral responses [11,12]. Cell-mediated responses are important in protection against cancers, while overproduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines is potentially suppressive for anti-cancer immunity. The present pilot study was designed to investigate effects of Qigong on in vitro cytokine production in healthy volunteers and to determine whether further evaluation of its effects on the cytokine profiles of patients with cancer would be valuable. We measured production of the above 6 cytokines before Qigong training and for up to 14 weeks of performing the exercises. Significant increases in PHA-stimulated IFNγ:IL10 ratios were found, indicating a shift towards cytokines favoring cell-mediated immunity. Methods Subjects and evaluations Nineteen healthy Chinese subjects aged 27 – 55 years (mean 43.9 ± 7.8), of whom 11 were females, were recruited by advertisement for first-time training in Guolin Qigong. One further volunteer was excluded on the grounds of ill-health. Each subject attended six 2-hour Qigong class in a two week period. They then practiced the exercises every day and kept diaries to record details. Ten subjects were still practicing Qigong at the end of the study period (14 weeks from starting training), while 9 ceased practice at 10 weeks. Blood pressure, pulse rate, blood cortisol level and production of IFNγ, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL12 and TNFα were measured before training and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks. One subject was excluded from the main study because of respiratory infection at 3 weeks, but was included in the 14 week comparison of subjects who completed the study with those who stopped, as the infection had cleared at that time. ELISPOT assay Numbers of cytokine-secreting cells (CK-SC) in unstimulated cultures or cultures stimulated with T-cell activators phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Concanavalin A (Con A) or solid-phase anti-CD3, or monocyte activators E. coli lipopolyssacharide (LPS) or S. aureus Cowan I (SAC) were determined using ELISPOT assays [13,14]. Details of our adaptation of this method and its specificity and reproducibility have been reported [15-17]. Briefly, heparinized blood was processed for cytokine evaluations within one hour of collection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) were separated over Lymphoprep (Nycomed, Oslo, Norway) and added to 96-well Multiscreen plates (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) which had previously been coated with cytokine capture antibodies (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, USA) and blocked with 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) in medium RPMI 1640. Duplicate cultures of 104 (for IL6 and TNFα) or 105 (for IFNγ, IL4, IL10 and IL12) cells/well in RPMI + 5% FCS with or without stimulators were incubated for 18–22 hours at 37°C in 5% CO2. Cells were then washed out and plates incubated sequentially with biotinylated detection anti-cytokine antibodies (Pharmingen), streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate-nitroblue tetrazolium (Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA, USA). Blue spots corresponding to each cytokine-SC were counted by microscopy with the aid of eyepiece graticules covering 1/8 or 1/72 of the culture well area. Results are expressed as CK-SC/106 PBM. Statistical analysis Prism version 2.0 software (GraphPad, San Diego, CA, USA) was used to compare various parameters before and at 3, 7 and 14 weeks after starting training (paired t-test) and to compare results at 14 weeks for subjects who stopped performing Qigong at 10 weeks with those of subjects who continued beyond 14 weeks (unpaired t-test). Results No significant changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure occurred over the study period, but pulse rate decreased from 76.3 ± 11.4 (mean ± SD) before training to 69.8 ± 9.4 at 3 weeks (p<0.05). However, values at 7 and 14 weeks (71.4 ± 9.5 and 74.3 ± 13.3 respectively) were not significantly different from baseline. Plasma cortisol levels at baseline were 394 ± 115 nmol/l and at 3, 7 and 14 weeks were 328 ± 126 (p < 0.05), 376 ± 109 (not significant) and 318 ± 110 (p < 0.05) respectively. Numbers of PHA, anti-CD3 and Con A-stimulated IL4-SC (Fig. 1A) and unstimulated and PHA, anti-CD3 and SAC stimulated IL12-SC (Fig. 1B) remained stable before and after Qigong training. No IL4 (nor IFNγ)-SC were seen in unstimulated cultures, as observed previously [15-17]. thumbnailFigure 1. Numbers of IL4 (A) and IL12 (B) cytokine-secreting cells (CK-SC) per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) measured by ELISPOT assay in 19 healthy volunteers before starting Qigong training (P) and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of practice. There were no significant changes during the study period. IL6-SC were significantly increased after 7 weeks of exercising in unstimulated, PHA-stimulated and LPS-, but not SAC-, stimulated cultures and returned to baseline levels at week 14 (Fig. 2A). TNFα-SC were significantly increased at 3 and 7 weeks in unstimulated cultures and returned to near baseline at 14 weeks. There was no significant increase in TNFα-SC stimulated by T-cell or monocyte activators and in fact LPS and SAC-stimulated TNFα-SC were significantly reduced at 14 weeks compared to pretraining (Fig. 2B). thumbnailFigure 2. Numbers of IL6-SC/106 PBM were increased after 7 weeks of Qigong practice compared with pretraining (A). Numbers of unstimulated TNFα-SC/106 PBM were increased at 3 and 7 weeks, but LPS and SAC-stimulated TNFα-SC/106 PBM were decreased at 14 weeks compared to pretraining (B). (1) p < 0.01, (2) p < 0.05 compared with P, paired t-test. Reduction in IL6 and TNFα-SC between week 7 and week 14 could have been because approximately half of the subjects stopped exercising at 10 weeks. This was not so for IL6, since cytokine production was similar in those who continued and those who stopped performing Qigong (Fig. 3A). In contrast, stopping Qigong was associated with a significantly lower level of unstimulated and PHA-stimulated TNFα-SC than in those who continued (Fig. 3B). thumbnailFigure 3. Numbers of IL6-SC/106 PBM (A) and TNFα-SC/106 PBM (B) at 14 weeks in subjects who continued (C) Qigong practice beyond 14 weeks and those who stopped (S) at 10 weeks. (1) p < 0.05, unpaired t-test. IFNγ-SC were significantly increased in PHA-stimulated cultures at 3, 7 and 14 weeks. The more powerful IFNγ inducers Con A and anti-CD3 stimulated levels of cytokine production that were less influenced by practicing Qigong, only Con A-induced IFNγ-SC at 3 weeks being significantly higher than before training (Fig. 4A). IL10 production in unstimulated cultures increased significantly after 7 weeks of exercises but fell back to pretraining levels at 14 weeks. PHA, LPS and SAC-induced IL10-SC were similar to pretraining levels at weeks 3 and 7 and lower at week 14, with PHA-induced IL10-SC being significantly lower than before training (Fig. 4B). The ratio of IFNγ:IL10-SC in PHA-stimulated cultures was significantly higher at 3, 7 and 14 weeks than before training (Fig. 4C). thumbnailFigure 4. Increased numbers of PHA-induced IFNγ-SC/106 PBM at 3 – 14 weeks of Qigong practice and of Con A-induced IFNγ-SC/106 PBM at 3 weeks compared with pretraining (A). Increased numbers of unstimulated IL10-SC/106 PBM at 7 weeks and decreased numbers of PHA-stimulated IL10-SC/106 PBM at 14 weeks (B). The ratio of PHA-induced IFNγ : IL10 increased with duration of Qigong practice (C). (1)p < 0.01, (2) p < 0.05, (3) p < 0.001 compared with P, paired t-test. IFNγ-SC, IL10-SC and the ratio of PHA-stimulated IFNγ:IL10-SC at 14 weeks were not significantly different in subjects who stopped performing Qigong exercises at 10 weeks compared with those who continued beyond 14 weeks (Fig. 5). thumbnailFigure 5. IFNγ production (A), IL10 production (B) and IFNγ:IL10 ratio (C) at 14 weeks after training in subjects who continued (C) Qigong practice beyond 14 weeks and those who stopped (S) at 10 weeks. Discussion Qigong has been practiced for over 3,000 years in China and evidence of its beneficial effects in maintaining and improving health has been presented, though largely in journals inaccessible to the West. Wider application of Qigong could possibly contribute to a healthier population less dependent on modem medicines, the cost of which is spiraling. If it were possible to identify the precise mechanisms by which Qigong achieves these supposed benefits, more focused application of the exercises and of qi energy could possibly result in generally acceptable therapies to supplement current practices. The present study attempted to determine whether the key regulator molecules of the immune system, cytokines, are influenced by Qigong. I chose to evaluate cytokine production using ELISPOT assays because these measure actual secreted cytokine rather than intracytoplasmic protein (as measured by flow cytometry) or message (by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) and the problem of cytokine neutralization by concomitantly secreted antagonists or soluble receptors, which affects measurement of cytokines in culture supernatants, is avoided. The ELISPOT assays established in our laboratory are sensitive, specific (no ELISPOTs develop when unmatched pairs of anti-cytokine antibodies are used for capture and detection) and reproducible, with intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 8.8 ± 5.8% for combined data for IFNγ, TNFα, IL4, IL6, IL10 and IL12 and all stimuli . Inter-assay variation is 13.2 ± 4.9%, reflecting considerable individual day-to-day variation, but when groups of subjects are evaluated at different time points, mean values vary by only 5.3 ± 3.8% . This is acceptable for studying effects of interventions in groups of subjects. All recruited volunteers were normotensive before training and practicing Guolin Qigong for at least 10 weeks did not alter blood pressure greatly. Pulse rates were lower than baseline at 3 weeks but not at 7 or 14 weeks. Interestingly, reduction in cortisol levels was biphasic, with a return to pretraining levels at 7 weeks despite significant reductions at 3 and 14 weeks. There were no significant differences between cortisol levels in those who stopped exercising at 10 weeks and those who continued. It is possible that practicing Qigong improved the stress-coping skills of our volunteers and that this ability was retained even after exercising was discontinued. This possibility requires further study. Previous studies have shown that in vitro production of IFNγ, IL12 and TNFα is suppressed by cortisol and that these cytokines are negatively correlated with plasma cortisol levels . Administration of cortisone acetate decreases the IFNγ:IL10 ratio by >70% . Improved coping with stress might therefore be expected to lower cortisol and favour type 1 over type 2 cytokine production. Our subjects had significantly increased IFNγ and reduced IL10-SC in PHA-stimulated cultures after practicing Qigong for as little as 3 weeks, with even greater increases at 14 weeks. This effect was still seen at 14 weeks in subjects who stopped exercising at 10 weeks. However, polarization towards type 1 responses was not found with all in vitro stimuli. Increases in IFNγ production after Qigong training were less apparent when Con A or solid-phase anti-CD3 were used. IL10 production was increased rather than decreased at 7 weeks in unstimulated cultures and there was only a trend towards reduced LPS or SAC-induced IL10 at 14 weeks. Furthermore there were no noticeable effects of Qigong on IL12, the key inducer of IFNγ and type 1 cytokines , nor on IL4, the central player in type 2 responses . Unstimulated and stimulated IL6-SC were significantly increased at 7 weeks, suggesting that a transient inflammatory event may have occurred at this time. Cortisol levels had risen from the reduced levels seen at 3 weeks and were to fall again at 14 weeks, which might indicate an increase in stress level of unknown causation at this time. However, DeRijk et al found that physiological increased levels of cortisol induced by strenuous exercise had no effect on LPS-induced IL6, and pharmacologically increased levels were suppressive. TNFα-SC increased over baseline in unstimulated cultures at 3 and 7 weeks and fell back to normal at 14 weeks in subjects who stopped performing exercises at 10 weeks. There was a similar but not significant trend in PHA-stimulated cultures, whereas in cultures stimulated with monocyte activators TNFα levels were suppressed at 14 weeks even in subjects who stopped exercising at 10 weeks. Unlike IL6, TNFα is sensitive to suppression by physiologically-induced increases in cortisol  but our results suggest that if the changes in TNFα seen in this study were due to fluctuating cortisol levels then TNFα induction by T-cell activators and in vivo stimuli may be affected by cortisol in a different way to that induced by monocyte activators. Conclusions A balance between type 1 and type 2 cytokines is required for maintenance of health, a preponderance of the former being associated with certain organ-specific autoimmune diseases and of the latter with allergy, systemic autoimmunity and suppressed responses to viruses and cancer . Preliminary evidence from a small, non-randomized, uncontrolled study has been provided here that Guolin Qigong might alter cytokine production in healthy subjects in the direction of type 1 responses. There is no evidence at present to indicate whether this would be beneficial, leading to stronger protection against, for example, cancer and asthma; harmful, leading to later complications such as autoimmune disease; or without effect, due to the relatively minor changes induced. Further studies of the effects of Qigong, and of the various components of Qigong, on clinical, immunological and physiological parameters in various disease situations are, however, clearly merited. Competing interests None declared Acknowledgements This study was initiated by Dr Vivian Wong, Hospital Chief Executive, Queen Mary Hospital, and was supported by the Li Ka Shing Foundation, Hong Kong. I am grateful to Dr Janette Kwok for translating and summarizing papers in Chinese, Ms Jacqueline Yuen, who organized and performed blood collection from volunteers, Dr Daniel Fong, who helped with statistical analyses, and Drs Jonathan Sham and Peter Lee for useful discussions. References Chien CH, Tsuei JJ, Lee SC, Huang YC, Wei YH: Effect of emitted bioenergy on biochemical functions of cells. Am J Chin Med 1991, 19:285-292. PubMed Abstract OpenURL Sander KM, Hu B: Medical applications of qigong and emitted qi on humans, animals, cell cultures and plants: review of selected scientific studies. Am J Acupunct 1991, 19:367-377. OpenURL Sander KM: Medical aspects of qigong. Alternative Therapies 1996, 2:40-46. OpenURL Wang C, Xu D, Qian Y: Medical and healthcare qigong. 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OpenURL Romagnani S: The Th1/Th2 paradigm. Immunol Today 1997, 18:263-266. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/1/8/prepub
香港大學HKU和瑪麗醫院QMH關于郭林氣功抗癌健身的研究報告引起專業和輿論關注 陳老師自从1998年11月开始，应玛丽医院院长（港岛西医院联网总监，香港大学教授）Wong, V.C.W.(黃譚智媛）之邀，在香港大学临床肿瘤学系癌症中心Cancer Centre開班教授郭林氣功，长达8+2=10年。 1. 《The potential role of Guolin Qigong for maintaining psychological well-being in patients with cancer (Abstract)》 （郭林氣功對維持癌患者心理情緒健康的潛在作用）Asia Pacific Hospice Conference, June 1999, 36: 12.3. by Wong, V.C.W.(黃譚智媛）, Jones, B.M., Lau, C.P.,Lee, P.W.H.（李永浩）, Chen, S.K.（陈秀坤）, Yuen, J.K.T., Cheng, J.Y.Y. and Sham, J.S.T. 2.《The effect of Guolin Qigong on healthy volunteers》（郭林氣功對健康的志愿練功者的效用） Asia Pacific Hospice Conference, June 1999., 1999, 36: 12.5 (Abstract)；by Lee, P.W.H.(李永浩）, Cheng, J.Y.Y., Leung, P.Y.Y., Sham, J.S.T.and Wong, V.C.W(黃譚智媛）. 3. Sham, J.S.T., Kwok, J., Leung, P.Y.Y., Yuen, J.K.T., & Wong, V.C.W. (1999, June 2-4). Retrospective and literature review on the clinical benefits of Guolin Qigong. Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Hospice Conference, Hong Kong. 4. Lee P.W.H., Qigong: Psychological Studies, abstract, Book of Abstracts, 6th Hong Kong International Cancer Congress. 1999. 5.Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study Brian M Jones, by Brian M Jones firstname.lastname@example.org, Division of Clinical Immunology, Pathology Department, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2001, 1:8 199-11-16香港大學HKU/瑪麗醫院QMH臨床醫療心理學部主任李永浩 (Prof. LEE Wing Ho, Peter，曾在Asia Pacific Hospice Conference會議发表報告）主持记者会，向海内外大众媒体通报如下（根据报刊报道）： 該部門去年安排七十名不同程度的癌症病人修習為期一個月共十二堂課的「郭林氣功」課程，結果發現，其中三十七名患者的情緒有放鬆跡象，以往因罹患癌症而產生的焦慮沮喪的壓力也明顯減低。「郭林氣功」有助改善逾五成末期及七成早期癌症病人的情緒、睡眠情況、食慾及活動力；另外，有四成病人在修習該課程後體重有增加跡象、三成患者的抵抗力更大幅增強四成以上。 為了研究「郭林氣功」的對抗及預防癌症功效，瑪麗醫院同時開設了普通修習班供身體健康人士修習，經過測試發現，學員完成課程後的第三、第七及第十四個星期，體內的腎上腺素水平明顯降低，這種反應有助於人體防癌。李永浩說，在修習氣功課程期間，同時發現學員體內的免疫系統中可殺死癌細胞的干擾素水平也相對提高。 當年次日（11月17日）中英文各大傳媒，紛紛跟進轉發這一轟動醫學界的大新聞，輿論界共同關注的焦點是，郭林氣功正式進入了政府公立醫院，沖擊港英遺留的以及西方現代主流醫療體制（歷來壓抑反對傳統中醫和非西醫正統的其它療法），而且被專家研究驗證了對提高患者免疫力和輔助治癌有顯效。會後，美國等海外醫學界專家學者來香港瑪麗醫院訪問郭林氣功。 例如，香港《東方日報》1999-11-17圖文并茂刊發【瑪麗醫院治癌氣功班見效】，同時配發編輯部社評，社評說郭林氣功蘊含了東方哲學。【瑪麗醫院治癌氣功班見效】郭林氣功可減壓控制情緒、免疫力增強。70例不同程度的癌症病人，習郭林氣功1個月，每周3次。37例受訓後，比受訓前有輕微情緒放鬆、減低焦慮、沮喪、壓力，較易控制情緒，整體的生活質素略為提升。5成晚期癌症病人的情緒、睡眠、食慾、活動力提高；4成體重增加；3成抵抗力好轉；7成早期癌症病人上述各方面得到改善。 另一組18例健康組，第7、11周，學員表示感到減壓、精神紓緩；免疫學發現，學員受訓後第3、7、14個星期，其腎上腺素水平明顯降低；部份學員的干擾素水平提高 http://www.geocities.com/glxqg/qigong.html(《東方日報》1999,11,17)。 ———————— 臺灣中央社记者舒振辉從香港發出電訊《香港瑪麗醫院發現修習氣功有助抗癌》。 英文大報《南華早報 South China Morning Post》 當日也以《Qi gong happiness for cancer patients》（氣功造福癌患者）為題向英語社會通報。 1999-12-26《蘋果日報》<醫院開設氣功班>。 ======= 参考文献： Lee, P.W.H., Cheng, J.Y.Y., Leung, R.Y.Y., Sham, J.S.T., & Wong, V.C.W. (1999, June 2-4). The potential role of Guolin Qigong for maintaining psychological well-being in patients with cancer. Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Hospice Conference, Hong Kong. Sham, J.S.T., Kwok, J., Leung, P.Y.Y., Yuen, J.K.T., & Wong, V.C.W. (1999, June 2-4). Retrospective and literature review on the clinical benefits of Guolin Qigong. Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Hospice Conference, Hong Kong. 1999年6月香港大學/ 瑪麗醫院多名專家联名在《Asia Pacific Hospice Conference，June 1999》會議, 用英文正式發表以下3篇郭林氣功研究進展論文，研究摘要收录在已经出版的会议录专刊，也收录在 Book of Abstracts, 12.3, Asia Pacific Hospice Conference 1999, Hong Kong. 9.,以及香港大学临床肿瘤学系网站Clinical Oncology http://www.rss.hku.hk/rs2000/outputs/clinonc.htm。随后多次被学术界引用参考。 有關 The potential role of Guolin Qigong for maintaining psychological well-being in patients with cancer 的學術文章 Potential role of mind‐body therapies in cancer … - Monti - 被引用 27 次 … of life, immune function, and survival in cancer patients - Oh - 被引用 16 次 The therapeutic use of the relaxation response in stress … - Esch - 被引用 137 次 搜尋結果 A Guide to Pain Medicine - 第 343 頁 - Google 圖書結果 books.google.com.hk/books?isbn=9622095445 - 翻譯這個網頁 Joseph Chuan Shih Yang, Siu Lun Tsui - 2002 - Medical Csikszentmihalyi M. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. ... The potential role of Guolin Qigong in maintaining psychological well-being in patients with cancer, Book of Abstracts, 12.3, Asia Pacific Hospice Conference 1999, Hong Kong. 9.
南華早報 South China Morning Post，By ELLA LEE，1999-11-17 Qi gong happiness for cancer patients （郭林抗癌健身）氣功造福癌瘤患者 編者按： 這是英文主流傳媒對陳老師當年任教瑪麗醫院Q/香港大學HKU郭林氣功抗癌班和研究班進展的專題報道。香港大學的階段性研究成果已在第六屆國際癌癥會議正式發表英文論文。 注解： 1. 文中qigong（氣功）就是 Guolin Qigong 即郭林氣功，而不是任何其它氣功。眾所周知，氣功流派甚多魚龍混雜，并非任何氣功均可抗癌健身，何況還有招搖撞騙的所謂神功其實就是偽氣功。 2. qi gong master from Beijing（北京來的氣功師）就是陳老師。 Cancer patients who practise qi gong are happier and more optimistic of recovery than those who do not, a survey has found. A medical team from the University of Hong Kong （香港大學）will now begin the SAR's first systematic study of the phenomenon. They will follow at least 100 cancer patients and monitor their health and survival rate as they practise the ancient Chinese exercise. The team invited 70 cancer patients at Queen Mary Hospital （香港政府公立瑪麗醫院，是香港大學醫學院教學醫院，也是醫院管理局港島中西區联网龍頭医院，當年號稱是亞洲最大醫院 - 編者注）to take 12 two-hour qi gong sessions between October and December last year. They were instructed in breathing patterns and exercise by a qi gong master from Beijing （北京來的氣功師）Of the 37 patients who continued practising qi gong in the six months after the course, most showed a positive response, including better moods, sleep and appetite. The patients said they were more confident about recovering. They also scored higher marks in terms of quality of life. At the sixth Hong Kong International Cancer Congress yesterday, the university's clinical psychologist, Professor Peter Lee Wing-ho,（香港大學臨床心理學教授李永浩）said many patients who practised qi gong had a lower anxiety level and were less agitated. But he stressed qi gong was not a cancer cure. 'We have to be very cautious about the findings. The improvements may be to do with group therapy and the exercise element of qi gong because patients enjoy practising with others and sharing,' he said. 'Qi gong has a beneficial effect on patients but we can't find any unique feature of it that affects the tretament of cancer.' The team interviewed 18 healthy hospital staff who also gained positive benefits from the course (18名健康的瑪麗醫院員工同事也從郭林氣功班獲益）. To increase understanding of qi gong's effects on cancer patients, a control study will be carried out on another group which undergoes psychological counselling, group therapy and different kinds of exercises. 'At this stage, we will not take a high profile stand in promoting qi gong as a cancer treatment,' Professor Lee said. More than 200 cancer patients at Queen Mary Hospital have taken qi gong classes.
hkugrant110878: A randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of Guolin-Qigong on body-mind health of Chinese women with breast cancer
Grant: A randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of Guolin ... hub.hku.hk/cris/project/hkugrant110878 Grant: A randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of Guolin-Qigong on body-mind health of Chinese women with breast cancer ...
Effects of Qigong Exercise on Upper Limb Lymphedema and Blood Flow in Survivors of Breast Cancer A Pilot Study
Impact Factor:2.354 | Ranking:4/22 in Integrative & Complementary Medicine | 108/196 in OncologySource:2012 Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Reuters, 2013) Expand+Integrative Cancer Therapiesict.sagepub.com Published online before print June 7, 2013, doi: 10.1177/1534735413490797 Integr Cancer Ther January 2014 vol. 13 no. 1 54-61 Effects of Qigong Exercise on Upper Limb Lymphedema and Blood Flow in Survivors of Breast Cancer A Pilot Study Shirley S. M. Fong, PT, PhD1 Shamay S. M. Ng, PT, PhD2 W. S. Luk, MD3 Joanne W. Y. Chung, RN, PhD4 Jacqueline S.C. Ho, RN, PhD5 Michael Ying, PhD6 Ada W. W. Ma, PhD4 1Institute of Human Performance, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong 2Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong 3The Association of Licentiates of Medical Council of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 4Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, Hong Kong 5School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong 6Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Shirley S. M. Fong, Institute of Human Performance, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Hypothesis. Qigong exercise is a popular method for relieving the side effects of conventional cancer treatments in survivors of breast cancer, yet its effects are not empirically assessed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of qigong exercise on upper limb lymphedema, arterial resistance, and blood flow velocity in survivors with breast cancer and mastectomy. Study Design. This study was conducted as a prospective clinical trial. Methods. Eleven survivors of breast cancer with qigong experience (mean age = 58.3 ± 10.1 years) were assigned to the experimental group and 12 survivors of breast cancer without qigong experience (mean age = 53.8 ± 4.2 years) were assigned to the control group. They all had breast cancer–related lymphedema. All procedures were completed within one session. After baseline measurements were taken, the experimental group performed 18 Forms Tai Chi Internal Qigong for approximately 6 minutes while the control group rested for similar duration in a sitting position. Both groups were then reassessed. All participants were measured on their affected upper limb circumference (by using tape measures), peripheral arterial resistance, and blood flow velocities (using a Doppler ultrasound machine). Results. The between-group differences were not significant for all outcome measures at baseline (P > .05). The circumferences of the affected upper arm, elbow, forearm and wrist decreased after qigong exercise (P < .05). However, no significant difference was found in the circumference measures between the 2 groups posttest (P > .0125). In terms of vascular outcomes, the resistance index decreased and the maximum systolic arterial blood flow velocity (SV) and minimum diastolic arterial blood flow velocity (DV) increased significantly after qigong exercise (P < .05). The between-group difference was close to significant for SV (P = .018) and was significant for DV (P < .001) posttest. Conclusion. Qigong exercise could reduce conventional cancer therapy side effects such as upper limb lymphedema and poor circulatory status in survivors of breast cancer. However, such effects may be temporary, and further studies must be conducted to explore longer term effects. complementary therapy tai chi qigong breast carcinoma postmastectomy
e-Journal of Traditional & Complementary Medicine RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVENESS OF HERBS AND ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES FOR CANCER Home ABOUT US EDITORIAL PAIN & WELLNESS CENTRE CA CARE POSTS Qigong As An Adjunctive to Cancer Therapy MARCH 17, 2011 BY CA CARE COMMENTS OFF Abstract: There are two basic kinds of Qigong, internal and external. Internal Qigong is used for self-healing and health maintenance. It can be performed in any position, including standing, sitting, walking, or lying down. External Qigong is practiced by Qigong masters and involves projecting the qi energy out of one’s body to heal another. The practice of qigong increases oxygen utilization, improves blood circulation, and increases the level and flow of qi (internal healing energy), which can help to maintain optimum health and encourage healing of diseased cells and organs. Yeong Sek Yee & Khadijah Shaari 10, Jalan SS 19/1K, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor. Tel: 03-56342775 / 019-3278092 __________________________________________________________________________ Exercise moves lymph, which collects wastes from your cells and tissue fluids, and helps to eliminate them from your body. It also eliminates toxins from cells and tissues through sweating and deep breathing, as well. In the process, exercise reduces and in some cases eliminates many of the poisons that your illness needs to survive. Among the more systematic programs of movement therapy that can be applied to treating serous illness is QIGONG which is an ancient Chinese exercise involving physical movements and deep breathing. An element of traditional Chinese medicine, it is used to circulate internal qi, which according to Chinese medicine, is the vital energy that flows through the body in a system of subtle channels known as meridians. Qigong is intended to direct the internal qi, and promote health. There are two basic kinds of Qigong, internal and external. Internal Qigong is used for self-healing and health maintenance. It can be performed in any position, including standing, sitting, walking, or lying down. External Qigong is practiced by Qigong masters and involves projecting the qi energy out of one’s body to heal another. The practice of qigong increases oxygen utilization, improves blood circulation, and increases the level and flow of qi (internal healing energy), which can help to maintain optimum health and encourage healing of diseased cells and organs. Done regularly, qigong can be a valuable part of a healthy lifestyle that should include a nutrient-rich plant based diet, physical exercise, sufficient rest and sleep and clean living. There are many styles of qigong, each with its own set of exercises and special discipline. All are beneficial. Qigong movements are gentle and unhurried and the slow movement tends to synchronize with the pace of breathing. Cancer patients practicing such activities will experience a sense of deep relaxation and heightened alertness. The practice of qigong has 3 main beneficial effects on the individual with cancer: a) Improved oxygen supply - during qigong, the body becomes deeply relaxed and oxygen is absorbed from the blood by the tissues. Unlike other more vigorous physical activities in which oxygen is utilized by the muscles, during qigong, oxygen is distributed throughout the body, including those areas that may be harboring cancer cells. Thus qigong accelerates oxygen distribution in the body. The higher the oxygen supply, the more readily the body can reverse a cancerous condition. In addition, there is an increased efficiency of cell metabolism and tissue regeneration through increased circulation of oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to the brain, organs b) Improved balance of the autonomic nervous system The second major benefit of qigong on the cancer patient involves the person’s psyche and its effect on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). During qigong practice, the individual can achieve a state of deep relaxation, enabling the parasympathetic nervous system to neutralize the stress response. When the autonomic nervous system are in balance, the immune system is more highly activated. c) Improved Lymphatic Function Qigong exercises stimulates circulation of the lymph fluid through the system, carrying the Immune cells to key areas and eliminating toxins from the tissue spaces. Thus, qigong’s main therapeutic benefits for cancer patients are the combined effects of improving the oxygen supply, balancing the nervous system, enhancing mood and relaxation, and strengthening the lymphatic system. QIGONG AS A COMPLEMENTARY CANCER THERAPY In China, Traditional Chinese doctors regard qigong not as an exclusive from of therapy, rather, they emphasize using it in combination with conventional treatment, Chinese herbal remedies, a healing diet, psychotherapy and regular group activities. Research studies of patients with cancer found that qigong helped improve the condition of the immune system, stimulated appetite, and reduced adverse side effects of chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Also, qigong appears to raise the cancer patient’s energy levels and improved muscle tone and co-ordination. MAIN TYPES OF QIGONG EXERCISES AVAILABLE AND WHERE TO PRACTISE The following are the main types of qigong exercises known to be practiced inMalaysia. Please call the individual organization concerned and choose a t raining center most convenient to you. a) QUOLIN QIGONG ASSOCIATION MALAYSIA H.Q: 5-4, Tkt Tiga, Jalan SP 2/1, Taman Serdang Perdana, Seksyen 2, 43300, Seri Kembangan. Tel/Fax: 03-89488775 NB : Quolin Qigong is practiced at 10 centres in the Klang Valley Please call the Association for details (between 11 a.m - 4 p.m) Quolin Qigong was named after Madam Guo Lin, who had cancer, used Western Medicine, and was near death. Then she found that by adapting Qigong forms she had learned from her grandparents, she was able to resolve her cancer in a dramatic way. Quolin Qigong has been recommended to cancer patients by several hospitals inChina, Taiwan and Hong Kong. It is also the official exercise of many Cancer Recovery Clubs in China. b) THE HEALING CHI ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA(CHI DYNAMICS) The above association was founded by Grandmaster Anthony Wee to teach & promote CHI DYNAMICS QIGONG BREATHING and CHI MEDITATION. Chi Dynamics practices are held at various centers in KL/PJ areas. For more information, please contact: Mr Kong Voon Sim - Chairman 012-2112282 Puan Khadijah Shaari - Deputy Chairman - 019-3278092 Mr Hew Chee Wai - Secretary 016-2200228 NB: website : www.chidynamics.org.my The Association has produced a special booklet by Grandmaster Anthony Wee entitled CANCER CARE WITH CHI DYNAMICS which explains in detail the proper method of breathing (deep diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing) which cancer patients should practise. The booklet is distributed free to all cancer patients and they can seek the help of qualified instructors to guide them. (please call the above for more information)